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Prototype Prescribing Outlier Dashboard for Dr Mahmood & Partners

At OpenPrescribing we are piloting a number of data-driven approaches to identify unusual prescribing and collect feedback on this prescribing to inform development of new tools to support prescribers and organisations to audit and review prescribing. These pilot results are provided for the interest of advanced users, although we don't know how relevant they are in practice. There is substantial variation in prescribing behaviours, across various different areas of medicine. Some variation can be explained by demographic changes, or local policies or guidelines, but much of the remaining variation is less easy to explain.

The DataLab is keen to hear your feedback on the results. You can do this by completing the following survey or emailing us at [email protected]. Please DO NOT INCLUDE IDENTIFIABLE PATIENT information in your feedback. All feedback is helpful, you can send short or detailed feedback.

This report has been developed to automatically identify prescribing patterns at a chemical level which are furthest away from “typical prescribing” and can be classified as an “outlier”. We calculate the number of prescriptions for each chemical in the BNF coding system, the count of all prescriptions within that chemical's BNF subparagraph, for prescriptions dispensed between June 2021 and December 2021. We then calculate the ratio of these counts along with the mean and standard deviation of those ratios across all Practices. From this we can calculate the “z-score”, which is a measure of how many standard deviations a given Practice is from the population mean. We then rank your “z-scores” to find the top 10 results where prescribing is an outlier for prescribing higher than its peers and those where it is an outlier for prescribing lower than its peers.

For each outlier chemical, a kernel density estimation plot of all Practice's chemical:subparagraph ratios is provided, with this Practice's ratio overlaid in red.

It is important to remember that this information was generated automatically and it is therefore likely that some of the behaviour is warranted. This report seeks only to collect information about where this variation may be warranted and where it might not, to inform research on this topic. Our full analytical method code is openly available on GitHub here.

This is a new, experimental feature. We'd love to .

Prescribing where Dr Mahmood & Partners is higher than most

BNF Chemical Chemical Items BNF Subparagraph Subparagraph Items Ratio Mean std Z_Score Plots
Cyclizine lactate 31 Drugs used in nausea and vertigo 123 0.25 0.01 0.02 14.02
Acetazolamide 14 Treatment of glaucoma 61 0.23 0.01 0.02 11.68
Diamorphine hydrochloride (Systemic) 13 Opioid analgesics 674 0.02 0.00 0.00 10.27
Cetylpyridinium chloride 1 Mouth-washes, gargles and dentifrices 4 0.25 0.00 0.03 8.87
Ticagrelor 126 Antiplatelet drugs 1,193 0.11 0.02 0.01 7.32
Solifenacin/tamsulosin 8 Drugs for urinary retention 72 0.11 0.01 0.01 7.20
Atomoxetine hydrochloride 62 CNS Stimulants and drugs used for ADHD 80 0.78 0.08 0.11 6.36
Terbinafine hydrochloride 60 Antifungal preparations 97 0.62 0.14 0.09 5.03
Xylometazoline hydrochloride 1 Topical nasal decongestants 1 1.00 0.11 0.20 4.52
Anastrozole 4 Breast cancer 4 1.00 0.22 0.20 3.94

Prescribing where Dr Mahmood & Partners is lower than most

BNF Chemical Chemical Items BNF Subparagraph Subparagraph Items Ratio Mean std Z_Score Plots
Carbimazole 6 Antithyroid drugs 11 0.55 0.93 0.10 -3.74
Mebeverine hydrochloride 6 Antispasmodic and other drugs altering gut motility 110 0.05 0.45 0.12 -3.19
Diazepam 130 Anxiolytics 372 0.35 0.75 0.13 -3.03
Methylphenidate hydrochloride 10 CNS Stimulants and drugs used for ADHD 80 0.12 0.65 0.20 -2.57
Sulfasalazine 0 Aminosalicylates 29 0.00 0.33 0.14 -2.33
    Estriol 0 Preparations for vaginal/vulval changes 2 0.00 0.45 0.20 -2.22
      Dexamethasone 0 Corticosteroids 7 0.00 0.49 0.22 -2.19
        Chlorhexidine gluconate 3 Mouth-washes, gargles and dentifrices 4 0.75 0.97 0.11 -2.10
        Letrozole 0 Breast cancer 4 0.00 0.45 0.22 -2.07
          Ibuprofen 39 Rubefacients, topical NSAIDS, capsaicin and poultice 368 0.11 0.52 0.20 -2.05